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No controls regression specification as in column considered one of Table 1; Full controls, includes interaction of individual degree observables with gender, as within the final column of Table 1. Tables-2 Table three: Trends in Happiness by Demographic Group, United States (Whites Only) Estimated Time Trend in Happiness No Controls Full Controls Women Men Difference Women Men Difference *** *** *** zero. The first three columns are the coefficients on female*time and male*time and the difference in these estimates, from an ordered probit that additionally controls for a female dummy, as in column considered one of Table 1. The last three columns report the same coefficients, but from a specification that controls for a wealthy array of individuallevel controls interacted with gender, as within the final column of Table 1. Ireland) (x100) Greece (x100) Ireland (x100) Italy (x100) Luxembourg (x100) Netherlands (x100) Portugal (x100) Spain (x100) West Germany (x100) #Surveys No Controls Women zero. If at present married: "Taking issues all collectively, how would you describe your marriage? Would you say that your marriage is [three] Very pleased; [2] Pretty pleased; or [1] Not too pleased Currently married Health zero. Would you say your personal well being, in general, is [four] Excellent; [three] Good; [2] Fair, or [1] Poor All adults zero. Each row examines a different subset of the whole white population and shows the outcomes of two regressions. The last three columns report the same coefficients, but from a specification that controls for a wealthy array of individuallevel interacted with gender, as within the final column of Table 1. The first three columns are the coefficients on female*time and male*time and the difference in these estimates, from an ordered probit of every satisfaction measure, controlling for a female dummy, as in column considered one of Table 1. No woman or child would wish to be a sex slave and endure the evil that I have gone by way of. This paper is an introduction to trafficking within the Americas4, providing a short discussion of related issues. In this definition the time period exploitation encompasses sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, servitude and elimination of organs. However, this paper focuses on the trafficking of ladies and children for sexual exploitation, referring to the follow simply as trafficking or sex trafficking. The technical language can obscure the lives on the heart of the problem-the millions of ladies and children preyed upon, abused, and prostituted in such appalling situations that trafficking has been identified as a contemporary form of slavery6. Around the world most trafficked individuals are women and children of low socio-economic standing, and the first trafficking the demand facet of sex trafficking remains the least visible. The insatiable demand for women and children in massage parlors, strip shows, escort providers, brothels, pornography and avenue prostitution is what makes the trafficking commerce so lucrative. Agencies involved in sex tourism, 1 Women, Health and Development Program Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation marketing to Caucasian males, promote Latin American women as dependent, erotic and sex-crazed12-a substitute for the stereotype of the cold, Western, independent woman. Brazilian women, for example, are marketed as dark-skinned, easy and obtainable, reinforcing racist and colonial stereotypes13. The nature of male demand for industrial sex must be understood extra fully to be able to get rid of sex trafficking. Even although women might really feel uneasy concerning the travel circumstances, despair over their present prospects and hope for a new life can simply outweigh any sense of danger. In this manner poverty and gender inequality create a large pool of potential and seemingly keen "recruits. In Guatemala, for example, traffickers preyed on young ladies raped in the middle of armed conflict, whose stigma as rape victims had damaged their marriage prospects14. Within these dynamics of global demand and provide associated to the sex industry, traffickers ply their entrepreneurial abilities. International and home Insufficient or inadequate laws Poor legislation enforcement laws are missing or Ineffective penalties insufficient; the place laws do Corruption, complacency exist, sentencing pointers do Invisibility of issue not present a deterrent. Supply, demand and impunity collectively create an area during which trafficking can flourish (Figure 1). The resulting setting allows excessive earnings at low danger for the traffickers, but with severe well being dangers and human rights violations for the victims. The house is extremely tough to see, much less describe and outline, because every 2 Women, Health and Development Program Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation facet of the triangle operates in a way that makes trafficking kind of invisible to society. Most info on crime rings is uncovered only when a participant is caught and agrees to inform15. The finish purchasers additionally favor to stay invisible, themselves engaged in activities which might be largely felony and thought of deviant. Relatively little is known about who the victims are, who the traffickers are, the routes and circumstances of trafficking, and how trafficking within the Americas may or may not differ from trafficking in different areas of the world. In the absence of exhausting statistical information, which is tough to acquire for illegal activities in general, an analysis must depend on estimates and indicators associated with trafficking. Guatemala City police report that 2,000 children are prostituted in over 600 brothels in that metropolis alone; Honduran and Salvadoran children have additionally been found in prostitution in Guatemala, some orphans due to Hurricane Mitch19. Other estimates include 25,000 child prostitutes within the Dominican Republic21, and 500,000 ladies prostituted in Brazil-many trafficked internally22. Casa Alianza reports that adolescents from Colombia, the Dominican Republic and the Philippines have been trafficked to Costa Rica for prostitution in areas often known as sex tour destinations23. Organized crime teams from varied areas of the world are involved in trafficking women and children to North America25. The Directorate of Migration within the Dominican Republic estimates there are 400 smuggling and trafficking rings within the nation, aided by the availability of refined and convincing false documents26. In 2000, Paraguayan authorities found against the law ring trafficking women and ladies to Argentina, promising work in home service but forcing them into prostitution upon arrival27. To understand the extent of human rights violations in trafficking, one needs to take a look at how traffickers33 exercise control. Survivors commonly report that traffickers confiscated their travel documents during or after transport, generally selling them back for exorbitant fees34. The confinement could also be enforced by way of barred home windows, locked doorways, posted guards and similar means. Various survivors have described how they could only go outdoors if a guard or boss was with them, and a few reported that guards would monitor their cellphone calls home35. Traffickers additionally exert control by creating situations of dependence and debt bondage. Traffickers usually charge a transportation payment, informing the victims upon arrival that they need to pay the payment by way of prostitution of some sort. The situation results in dependence on traffickers for money, meals, clothes and different necessities. Physical assault and rape are used to provoke women into the sex industry, to drive compliance. Survivors report being overwhelmed or raped as punishment for refusing customers, complaining, attempting to escape, or purely for the gratification of the trafficker or pimp39. The constant menace, experience and witnessing of violence can condition women to submit to trafficker demands, as a method of self-preservation. Clandestine migration typically requires sub-optimal means of transportation, placing the victims at risk for starvation, drowning, suffocation and exposure to the elements40. Numerous reports of accidents and deaths have brought on the International Organization for Migration to determine trafficking as essentially the most dangerous form of migration41. Other well being dangers in transit include exposure to violence and communicable illnesses. Little scientific investigation of the well being of trafficking victims has been conducted, perhaps because the population is tough to access. To supplement this data, the overall well being dangers of prostitution can be utilized as an approximation of those faced by women and children trafficked into the sex industry. However, knowledge of these dangers comes from samples drawn from prostitutes working on the road or visiting well being clinics. Since trafficking victims are sometimes not free to leave the brothel or go to well being clinics, the conclusions of these research may not fully symbolize the experiences of trafficking victims. Trafficking victims experience violence by traffickers, pimps, brothel homeowners, clients and police. They are overwhelmed, generally with weapons, and severely sufficient to require emergency room visits42. The consequences of psychological, bodily and sexual violence associated with trafficking and sexual exploitation include despair, suicidal ideas and makes an attempt, and bodily accidents corresponding to bruises, damaged bones, head wounds, stab wounds, mouth and teeth accidents, and even death44.

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This material is meant for instructional use only by working towards well being care staff or college students and faculty in a well being care field. It addresses and incorporates chosen chapters and topics that are incorporated in the obstetrics and gynecology course for nurses. However, a serious focus is offered on the position of the nurse in offering high quality maternal and new child care. The obstetric nurse does a 3 or four month course of obstetrics part as a part of an integrated coaching. The nurses work among the neighborhood and so they bear the great responsibility of getting to take care of moms in remote areas and far away from hospitals. It is organized in a logical method so that college students can be taught from the fundamentals to the advanced. Each chapter incorporates studying goals, descriptions and workout routines in the form of discussion, case studies. Important abbreviations and that i glossaries have been included to be able to facilitate the instructing studying process. I additionally lengthen my due to my colleagues from Alemaya University, Faculty of Health Sciences for his or her invaluable comments through the revision of the lecture note. Finally, my particular thanks and gratitude goes to Ato Aklilu Mulugetta for his devoted assist and facilitating the preparation of this lecture note. Last but not least, I thank my college authorities; Acadamic Vice President, Faculty dean and Department for his or her permission to work on this lecture note apart from my different obligations. I would additionally prefer to thank my faculty secretaries for his or her cooperation in scripting this lecture note. To have healthy children, it is important to promote the well being of the childbearing ladies and her household from the time earlier than children are born till they reach adulthood. Prenatal care and steerage is crucial to the well being of women and fetus and to the emotional preparation of a household for chilbrearing. The routes of maternity care in the Western world are additionally historic; the first recorded obstetric practices are found in Egyptian records courting again to 1500 B. C Practices similar to vaginal examination and the use of start aids are referred to in writings from the Greek and Roman empires, but 1 a lot of their data was lost in the dark ages. Advance in medication made through the renaissance in Europe led to the trendy "Scientific" age of obstetric care. Significant th discoveries and invites by Physicians in the 16 and 17th centuries let the stage for scientific progress. More than 150 million ladies become pregnant in developing international locations each year and an estimated 500, 000 of them die from being pregnant associated causes. Other than their well being issues most girls in the developing international locations lack entry to modern well being care services and increase the magnitude of dying from preventable issues. Lack of entry to modern well being care services has nice influence on increasing maternal dying. The life time danger of dying because of being pregnant or baby start is estimated at one in twenty ­ three for ladies in Africa, in comparison with about one in 10,000 for ladies in Northern Europe 75% of Maternal morbidity and mortality associated to being pregnant and baby start are as a result of 5 obstetric causes. As Ethiopia is likely one of the developing international locations with inadequate amenities and sources having highest maternal morbidity and mortality and poor coverage of maternal is estimated to be a thousand/100,000 stay start. In Ethiopia ladies get antenatal care are around 905, 283 and overall the national antenatal care coverage in 34. Among this pregnant woman only 259,083 are attended institutional delivery making the national coverage of 10%. Unwanted and unplanned pregnancies are necessary determinants of maternal in well being. So from 1,769,171 of women baby bearing age anticipated to use household planning 635,a hundred and five of them use household planning and the national coverage is only 18. Prompt and environment friendly cares during obstetrical 3 emergencies additionally prevent so a lot of problems. The importance of the obstetric and gynecology nursing are: - Equip the nurse with the information and understanding of the Anatomy and physiology of reproductive organ have the ability to apply it in follow - With a great information of obstetric medicine together with, the effect of diseases their Complications and know how to take care of them. Describe attribute of menustral cycle and its dysfunction List anatomy of feminine breast Define puberity and its featuers. It has a large prominance known as the ischial tuberosity on which the body rests when sitting. Behind and slightly above the tuberosity is an inward projection, the ischial spine. In labour the station of the fetal head is estimated in relation to ischial spines. The space enclosed by the body of the pubic bone the rami and the ischium is called the obturator foramen. The anterior floor of the 6 sacrum is concave and is referred to as the hallow of the sacrum. Pelvic Joints There are four pelvic joints One Symphysis pubis Two Sacro illiac joint One Sacro coccygeal joint the symphysis pubis is a cartilgeous joint shaped by junction of the 2 pubic bones alongside the midline. The sacro coccygeal joint is shaped where the bottom of the coccyx articulates with the tip of the sacrum. Pelvic ligaments Each of the pelvic joints is held together by ligaments Interpubic ligaments at the symphysis pubis (1) 7 - Sacro iliac ligaments (2) Sacro coccygeal ligaments (1) Sacro tuberous ligament (2) Sacro spinous ligament (2) Figure 2: Pelvic Ligaments on posterior view (Derexllewllyn, 1990) the True Pelvis the true pelvis is the bony canal by way of which the fetus must pass during start. The anatomical out let is shaped by the lower borders of every of the bones along with the sacrotuberous ligament. The obstretrical out let is of the space between the slim pelvic strait and the anatomical outlet. Pelvic brim Sacral promentary posteriorly Superior ramus of the pubic bone antro lateral Upper internal boarder of the body of the pubic bone Upper internal boarder of the symphysis pubis anteriorly B. Out let Inferior pubic rami antero laterally Sacrotuberous ligament postro laterally Ischial tuberosity laterally Inferior border of symphsis pubis anteriorly. Tip of coccyx Important diameters of the pelvis Inlet Diagonal conjugate - a line from the sacral promontory toward the lower boarder of the symphysis pubis and measures 12. Measurements of the pelvic canal in centimeters Anteropostrior Brim Cavity Out let eleven 12 thirteen Oblique 12 12 12 Transverse thirteen 12 eleven the four types of feminine pelvis 1. Features of the four types of feminine pelvis Features Brim Gaynacoid Round Android Heart shaped Antropaid Long oval Platypelloid Kidney shaped Fore- pelvis Side walls isctial spines sciatic notch sub- pubic angle Incidence Genrous Straight Blunt Rounded ninety o Narrow convergent Prominent Narrow < ninety o narrowed divergent blunt wide >ninety o Wide Divergent Blunt Wide >ninety 5% o 50% 20% 25% Figure 3 Types of feminine pelvis (Alan H. Functions: It helps the burden of the belly and pelvic organs the muscle tissue are responssible for the voluntary control of micturation, defication and play an necessary part in sexual activity. It infulences the passive movement of the fetus by way of the start canal and relaxes to allow its exit from the pelvis. The major necessary muscels of pelivic floor are: Levater ani muscle tissue are arising from the lateral pelveic wall and decussate in the midline between the urethra, the Vagina and rectum. It is large compared with the ture pelvis and some adptation between skull and pelvis must happen during labour. An understanding of the landmarks and measurements of the fetal skull permits to acknowledge normal presentation and positions and to facilitate delivery with the least possible trauma to mom and baby. The vault is the massive dome shaped part above the imaginary line drowns between the orbital ridges and the nape of the neck. The base consists of bones that are firmly united to shield the vital centres in the medulla. The face consists of 14 small bones that are additionally firmly united and non- compressible Bones of the Vault There are 5 major bones in the vault of the fetal skull. The occipital bone lies behind the head and varieties the region of the occiput. The lambdoidal suture is shped like the Greek letter lambda and separates the occipital bone from the 2 parital bones. The coronal sutrue separetes the frontal bones from the parital bones, passing from one temple to the opposite. The frontal suture runs between the 2 haves of the frontal bone Types of fontanelle A. The posterior fontanelle or lambda is situated at the junction of the lambdiodal and sagital sutures. The anterior fontanelle or bregma is discovered at the junction of the sagital, coronal and frontal sutures and acknowledged vaginally. The sutures and fontanelles, as a result of they encompass memberanous spaces, allow for a level of overlapping of the skull bones during labour and delivery. The vertex is bounded by the posterior fontanelle, the parital eminences and the anterior fontanelle.

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In each southern Africa and Southeast Asia, stink bugs are eaten each uncooked and cooked (Faure, 1944; J. The heads of stay or useless bugs are eliminated by squeezing (from back to entrance), which discards their "poison" (Faure, 1944; Toms and Thagwana, 2003). The water during which Nezara robusta, the inexperienced defend stink bug, leaves its secretions is used as a pesticide to protect houses and gardens from termites (Morris, 2004). Ecological implications Stink bugs face related threats to many different extremely sought-after edible bugs. One cause for that is that many newbie collectors fell complete bushes prior to harvest, with dangerous consequences for the sustainability of the practice (Faure, 1944; J. In addition, overharvesting can and finally will undermine stink bug populations, threatening subsequent copulation durations (beginning in mid October). Another concern has consequences for each the environment and meals safety ­ stink bugs of the Tessaratoma genus are considered agricultural pests and could also be topic to chemical remedy. The harvesting of stink bugs may protect crops and provide further earnings and nutrition; eradication of the pest would likewise eradicate an essential source of livelihoods, which ought to be averted (Cerritos, 2009). In some parts of the world, the benefits of insect gathering to lives and livelihoods are incentives for correct management. The Norumedzo group in Zimbabwe, for instance, has designated stink bug habitats as group-protected areas. These forests are regularly monitored and tree-felling is kept to a minimal (Makuku, 1993). Some agricultural fields where stink bugs happen are topic to mechanical harvesting. In these circumstances, stink bugs are collected by hand to protect the crop and earn earnings from the sale of the bugs. This method is changing into more and more common in cultures where agricultural pests are additionally priceless sources of nutrition and earnings. In the Lake Victoria region of East Africa, where the grasshoppers are often known as nsenene, they form a serious part of meals culture (Kinyuru, Kenji and Muhoho, 2010). Larvae and adults feed off grass anthers or grains such as rice, millet, sorghum and maize. Traditionally, grasshoppers are gathered in the course of the day from these grasses (Mors, 1958). When they discover them, they cry loudly to announce to the village where the nsenene have alighted ­ in banana groves or open fields, or on the hills. Professional collectors may be seen using potent artificial light sources to harvest grasshoppers, although women and kids additionally participate, making use of street illumination (van Huis, 2003b). A loss of electrical energy provide can play havoc on the earnings earned from harvesting edible grasshoppers (Box 2. Julius Kafeero, a grasshopper catcher from the Ugandan capital, Kampala, says electrical light is important for his business. The unreliability of the power provide has compelled him and a number of other different collectors to rely on different sources of energy such as fuel turbines. Juliet Nakalyango, a saleswoman at Nakasero market, says customers nonetheless purchase her grasshoppers, although prices have doubled. Commerce In Uganda, a market study of Ruspolia nitidula in Kampala and Makaka districts found that, being a delicacy, 1 kg of grasshoppers fetched prices at native markets that have been 40 % greater than 1 kg of beef (Agea et al. The study, which interviewed 70 traders and 70 customers, revealed that retailers bought three-quarters of their provide from wholesalers, and the remainder was derived directly from collectors. Although males have been dominant actors in the commerce, women additionally contributed to accumulating. Other grasshopper species In Japan, grasshopper harvesting (primarily Oxya yezoensis) is linked to the rice harvest. Collection occurs in the morning, when the grasshoppers are wet from the morning dew. However, the harvesting and consumption of grasshoppers in Japan has declined in recent years (Nonaka, 2009). In Korea, they have been commonly eaten as a facet dish, as a lunch-field ingredient and as a snack. The use of rice-subject grasshoppers declined in the course of the 1960s and Seventies because of increased insecticide use. In 1981, the foundations mandating insecticide use loosened and farmers started using less, the position of bugs 29 which allowed grasshopper populations to enhance. The decline in insecticide use and the need of some Koreans to eat pesticide-free rice led to the development of natural rice farming in Chahwang Myun. This was economically viable as a result of the yields of rice have been the identical in unsprayed fields as in sprayed fields, and natural rice offered for greater prices. In 1989, the Chahwang Agricultural Cooperative, which features primarily to purchase, mill and promote rice, started to purchase dried grasshoppers from farmer-collectors. Oxya velox was the most typical species (yellow-inexperienced and 27­37 mm in length, present in Japan and China and on the Korean Peninsula and the island of Taiwan), comprising eighty four. In 1991 and 1992, the Chahwang Myun Cooperative continued to purchase and promote massive numbers of grasshoppers and many people came to purchase directly from farmers (Pemberton, 1994). Forty years ago in Thailand there was an outbreak of the patanga locust (Patanga succincta) in maize. The grasshoppers have been deep-fried, used as a cracker ingredient and fermented to make a cooking sauce. Today, the grasshopper (deep-fried) is likely one of the best-recognized and most popular edible bugs in Thailand, and this species is now not a serious agricultural pest. Some farmers even develop maize crops to feed the insect, quite than harvesting the maize for sale (Hanboonsong, 2010). A number of grasshopper species are collected for household consumption when clearing fields for paddy planting. Cooking is straightforward: the grasshoppers are salted frivolously, boiled in somewhat water and simmered until dry. Usually grasshoppers are served as a single dish and not mixed with vegetables or meat (Chung, 2010). In Mexico, grasshoppers (Sphenarium purpurascens), commonly often known as chapulines, are a well-liked form of street meals. Although usually out there at casual street stands and small-city eating places, grasshoppers, amongst different bugs, are now additionally found on the menus of dearer eating places, and dried packaged grasshoppers may be purchased in up-market shops (Ramos Elorduy, 2009). Yet most of the people is less aware of a host of different insect merchandise, a lot of that are present in most kitchen cabinets, medicines and different family merchandise. Carmine, for instance, additionally referred to as cochineal, is a pink dye produced by scale bugs, and is usually used to colour meals merchandise and as a dye in textiles and prescribed drugs. Despite its widespread use and approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration, carmine has recently been the subject of controversy, outraging customers of a well-liked American espresso chain company because of its use in its drinks (Box 2. The bugs stay on the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, which is cultivated for its fruits often known as prickly pears. The Canary Islands, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia are the most important 30 Edible bugs: future prospects for meals and feed security Box 2. Prior to using cochineal extract, Starbucks had used artificial components and chose to switch to a extra pure means of colouring (Leung, 2012). When this was brought to the eye of a gaggle of vegan7 customers in the United States, the story went viral by way of blogs and internet boards and was broadly reported in North American media. In a comment to customers, the President of Starbucks United States noted that in response to client reactions to using cochineal extract in some of its merchandise, the company would now use a tomato-primarily based colouring (Burrows, 2012). The greatest importers of carmine are Brazil, Denmark, France, Germany and the United States. In addition to its makes use of in the meals trade, cochineal manufacturing has supplied a host of social advantages for Peruvians, not least employment. Moreover, manufacturing has been hailed for its environmental advantages, as the planting of its host plant, Opuntia ficus-indica, protects open areas from erosion, develops fertile soil for farming, and captures a major amount of atmospheric carbon. Silkworm manufacturing additionally has appreciable financial relevance, significantly in China and India, where annual manufacturing reaches 115 000 and 20 410 tonnes, respectively. More recently, Brazil, Thailand and Uzbekistan have additionally produced vital portions.

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It may add stress as they attempt to steadiness their jobs with their caregiving and home duties. Overtime also raises safety issues for girls as a result of traveling to and from work very early within the day or late within the night could put them susceptible to abuse and violence outside of the workplace. One day her flooring supervisor approached her on the end of her shift and gave her a 200-piece goal to full as overtime work. Examples of gender-delicate provisions for Working Hours: Policies for the calculation of basic wages, overtime, bonuses, and payroll deductions are the identical for both women and men workers, and measures are taken to ensure that all personnel perceive these insurance policies. They usually tend to expertise long workdays because of combining paid and unpaid work-especially in growing international locations. Flexible work options as well as homeworking preparations, when rigorously outlined and applied, could supply win-win solutions. An American shopper goods manufacturer with an round-the-clock production schedule instituted a flextime coverage that allowed workers to add two hours to the start or end of a shift in trade for that point off later. Within work teams, workers swapped schedules and cross-coaching allowed for the creation of a "reduction pool" to cover absences, saving the corporate overtime bills. In one other example, an institution of higher education provided a drop-in child care program near the campus the place faculty and staff could depart their children when school was cancelled due to snow. Employees also commonly used flextime options corresponding to compressed work weeks and teleworking to higher deal with family calls for. Both men and women, especially these with younger children, benefit from formal initiatives that promote work-family steadiness. They expertise improved private and professional outcomes like higher morale, higher dedication, reduced stress, and improved physical well being. For employers, payoffs of instituting work-family steadiness initiatives embody reduced tardiness, absence, and turnover and elevated productiveness. One social entrepreneur, nonetheless, has steadily made progress partnering with communities and factories to enhance the lives of girls workers and their children. Ashoka Fellow Suraiya Haque founded Phulki in 1991, and right now the organization operates almost ninety community-based, and 25 manufacturing unit-based, day-care centers in Dhaka. Caretakers on the centers are educated in early childhood growth, vitamin, and hygiene. And each month, Phulki meets with mothers-and infrequently fathers-for vitamin education and presents trainings on labor, sexual, and reproductive rights. Suraiya has established a value-sharing mannequin by which Phulki works with a manufacturing unit to operate a day take care of six to 12 months, after which the manufacturing unit can both assume administration or pay Phulki to proceed to accomplish that. The costs are shared between factories and workers, which keeps the day care financially sustainable and the quality of the care excessive. Female workers are especially vulnerable to harassment and violence-starting from verbal abuse and sexual harassment to pressured labor, assault, and rape-at work and at house. On the opposite hand, hostile working situations result in low productiveness and excessive worker turnover. Harassment and abuse are addressed in most codes of conduct however not essentially as a stand-alone principle. These issues supply additional challenges as they could be very difficult to detect through regular audit processes. In international locations like Bangladesh and India about 60 p.c of manufacturing unit workers have experienced harassment at work. Many feminine workers have also experienced unwanted sexual advances and intimate associate violence in their community. Female workers are especially vulnerable to harassment once they: fail to meet production targets, make a mistake, ask for depart, arrive late, merely fall sick, are traveling to and from work. Women should a sure extent "normalized" sexual harassment and unwelcome advances as a part of their lived experiences. There is social stigma attached to the victims, and workers usually keep silent instead of risking their reputation, damaging their marriage prospects, or upsetting their associate. On the opposite hand, male counterparts of feminine workers are sometimes not being effectively engaged in dialogue of the issues. Male co-workers are sometimes uncertain tips on how to behave in an setting the place girls outnumber them and/or are treated as preferable workers. Butwomenunderstand that sexual harassment can they now I happen in many alternative varieties, stated Indrani, who works at Jerash Garment & Fashion Manufacturing Co. Ltd We in have no idea much the foundations are foreignersbutJordan, so webetter thought of how toaboutwithlaws,situation if and procedures, I now have a deal the something occurs, stated manufacturing unit worker Priyadorshani, Jerash Garment & Fashion Manufacturing Co. When carried out in silos, these measures could even cause backlash, corresponding to proactive committee members being harassed or fired. It is crucial to have measures in place to protect workers when complaining about harassment. Sexual harassment (both quid pro quo and hostile-setting harassment) should be explicitly mentioned. Example of gender-delicate provisions for Harassment:1 All forms of violence and harassment within the workplace, together with verbal, physical, sexual, or psychological abuse, are prohibited. Sexual harassment, together with unwelcome sexual advances, unwanted hugs and touches, suggestive or lewd remarks, requests for sexual favors, and the display of indecent, derogatory, or pornographic footage, posters, drawings, or movies, is prohibited. All workers, both women and men, are protected against retaliation for complaining about harassment. Security staff, medical doctors, nurses, managers and other key personnel, the place related, are often educated to recognize signs of genderbased violence and perceive legal guidelines and organization insurance policies on human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Adequate steps shall be taken to forestall accidents and damage to well being arising out of, related to, or occurring in the course of work by minimizing, so far as is reasonably practicable, the causes of hazards inherent within the working setting. All workers shall have access to medical help and facilities, clean bathroom facilities, and drinkable water as well as sanitary facilities for meals preparation and storage, if applicable. Workers shall receive regular and recorded well being and security coaching, and such coaching shall be repeated for brand new or reassigned workers. Accommodation, the place provided, shall be clean, safe, and meet the fundamental needs of the employees. Health has long been recognized as a basic human right and important to the quality of life of communities. When contemplating gender issues, all these matters are important for girls, as well as for males. Work outside the home offers girls with social assist and helps construct their shallowness. Job and task segregation by gender means that men and women are typically uncovered to totally different work-related hazards. Moreover, the well being impacts on girls immediately linked to employment are totally different from these on males. They embody urinary tract infections, poor menstrual hygiene, well being penalties linked to sexual harassment, unwanted being pregnant, and lack of access to not only common but in addition reproductive and maternal well being companies. Certain types of work and substances are suspected of having adverse results, especially if girls are pregnant or breastfeeding. If there are too few toilets available to enable girls to have sufficient toilet breaks, for example, it can have horrible penalties on their well being, corresponding to serious infections. Conflicts between the calls for of paid and unpaid work-the latter being generally the duty of girls, especially in growing international locations-could result in stress, depression, and fatigue and to a decreased participation in workplace well being and security. As migrants, additional issues like language and cultural differences and potential discrimination from well being providers could add barriers to healthcare access (see Employment Relationship). The examine, performed in 2012, was based on a survey of 300 girls workers employed at 60 garment manufacturing factories. The findings point out that the diploma of selection that ladies workers have in relation to their childcare decisions is extremely restricted and that decisions are made not based on the quality of care however on its mere availability and affordability. Regarding facilities, girls have particular needs and the issues they encounter are totally different than these confronted by males. Health companies: hygiene, reproductive well being and family planning, most cancers screening, nutritional and breastfeeding counselling are well being companies which are particular to girls and should be provided on-web site to workers or at exterior healthcare facilities at affordable quality, proximity, and hours. Nursing rooms: and related versatile working preparations for breastfeeding mothers help promote a follow recognized by the World Health Organization and enable girls to proceed breastfeeding even after they return to work. Childcare facilities: both on-web site or exterior, help both men and women workers with family obligations proceed within the workforce without prejudice to their care-giving roles. Such companies may be especially essential for girls migrant workers by permitting them to keep their children with them somewhat than sending them back to their community to be taken care of by other family members. Include language on reproductive well being within the list of well being elements that extend past occupational well being and security. Make provisions to guarantee workers access to well being companies and insurance coverage that serve the distinctive concerns and needs of both men and women.

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Nationwide, women make up sixty four percent of part-time staff, practically half of whom are of childbearing age. Currently 16 states and six cities have handed affordable lodging legal guidelines for pregnant women. The Office of Human Rights can examine sexual harassment in employment, housing, and public lodging. The Office on Human Rights supplies group outreach and trainings, however has seen funding cuts to outreach lately. The Office of Human Rights also notifies the City Manager if there are any significant developments in its work, corresponding to a number of complaints against the identical respondent. The Office of Human Rights receives way more contact and conducts extra intakes than the variety of circumstances officially Pregnancy Discrimination the Pregnancy Discrimination Act is a federal statute that ensures the right not to be treated adversely due to being pregnant, childbirth, or related medical situations, and the right to be treated in addition to other staff "not so affected however comparable of their ability or lack of ability to work. This is 5 minutes longer than the mean travel time to work for Alexandrians, 30. Moreover, if child-care entry is factored into this travel time, households commuting from the West End to Old Town might simply spend two hours in transit each day. Currently, there are eighty three child-care centers in the city ­ with just one located at a job website (the U. Substantial preschool and child care capability is located in neighborhoods east of Quaker Lane whereas the majority of kids stay in the West End of the town. Staff also cite strolling as a major methodology for low-earnings households to entry child care. Pedestrian accessibility, and all the factors that enhance or cut back it - intersects with economic security for these households, a topic explored in additional depth later in this report. Transportation Transportation impacts employment choices and general quality of life. Furthermore, the psychological health and psychological wellbeing of younger women and women is a concern. At this level, the complete influence of Medicaid growth on city employees and resources is unknown. Medicaid growth 28 Healthcare and developing other suggestions for addressing health insurance protection gaps. Neighborhood Health referred 1,455 women for mammograms; sixty six percent of these women were uninsured. These nine indicators cover continual disease, sexual health, psychological health and physical health. In addition, whereas both psychological health and obesity seem to be significant emerging points in Alexandria and across the nation, extra information is needed to determine how they influence women particularly. Despite comparable incidence charges, black women are forty two percent extra more likely to die from breast cancer than white women. The Fund has helped eight,000 uninsured and underinsured Alexandria women receive free mammograms and other diagnostic screenings since its inception. This is roughly in line with statewide information that reveals that 23 percent of adults had 1 to 7 days when psychological health was not good and 19 percent had eight to 30 days when psychological health was not good. Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Natives, at an 89 percent improve, and for non-Hispanic white females, at a 60 percent improve. As part of this effort, the state legislature recently approved a invoice that would count recess as tutorial time to improve the amount of time college kids spend in recess. In the eighth grade, 21 percent of women made a plan for committing suicide - compared to 7 percent of boys. That quantity was lower for ladies in grades 10 and 12 - 14 percent made a plan for suicide - though still double the quantity for boys. Admissions from opioid overdoses at Inova Alexandria Hospital rose close to 20 percent from 2015 to 2016, and greater than forty percent from 2016 to 2017. Opioid Overdose and Naloxone Education program, a ninety-minute training that teaches individuals tips on how to acknowledge symptoms and respond to an opioid overdose. The growing opioid epidemic is said to be contributing to the growing variety of women in jail. In addition, maternal mortality is a serious issue for black women in Virginia the place greater than 3 times the variety of black women are dying in or near childbirth, as compared to any other race. Other main causes embody hemorrhages, cardiomyopathy, infections and basic hypertension. Alexandria teens have entry to free and confidential medical providers at the Teen Wellness Center, located at T. Family Planning and Maternal Health/Prenatal Care In 1974, the demand for a weekly and biweekly city-run household planning clinic was so high that appointments had to be made three weeks prematurely. This is below the national and state percentages, at 74 and eighty three percent respectively, and below the Healthy People 2020 national health target of 77. While issues have 33 Status of Women Report Leadership Women not as Prevalent at the Highest Levels Women have a growing presence in City government, yet elected positions at the highest levels are still primarily stuffed by men. Currently, the town council has two women serving: Mayor Allison Silberberg and Councilwoman Redella S. Two new feminine candidates will be a part of Councilwoman Pepper in January 2018, but the incoming mayor might be one of the two men currently vying for election to that position. The first feminine mayor was elected in 1991 - 18 years after women began serving on the town council. It must be famous, that in 2012 there have been eight feminine candidates for city council, however only two women (Silberberg and Pepper) were elected. More women than ever were elected to the Virginia General Assembly - taking 38 out of one hundred forty seats, for 27 percent of the total. Among these women legislators were the first Latinas, the first transgender particular person, the first lesbian and the first Asian-American girl to be elected to the final assembly. In an 34 Leadership Well-documented nationwide, women who run for office may encounter every thing from sexual harassment to threats to their security on the campaign trail. Fundraising is especially difficult for women who may not have the extensive networks or who may have been taught not to ask for issues for themselves. Women also have lower earnings than men, making it more difficult to doubtlessly cut back work hours for serving in public office. Night time meetings and frequent events increase scheduling and caregiving challenges for women with kids, particularly lower-earnings women and single moms. In addition, cultural and societal norms still have an effect on whether women search office. From a younger age, women and women are taught to wait their turn, or prioritize others over themselves. Well-documented nationwide, women who run for office may encounter every thing from sexual harassment to threats to their security on the campaign trail. Women are involved in main group initiatives in organizations and casual groups across the town, in addition to impacting change on the neighborhood degree. These women were pure leaders locally and shaped a group advisory board, Amigas de la Comunidad, as part of the group-primarily based research process. Their mission states, "We are a group of ladies working collectively for the improvement and properly-being of our households and group. They have transitioned from the survey to engaged on household reunification, emergency help, and deportation protection. The voices and views of Amigas de la Comunidad can be useful for planning and decision-making in Alexandria government. Different avenues for the town to gain perception from such leaders must be explored. So just talking to them and monitoring themes, my goal is to be capable of hyperlink them to the resources which are obtainable right here. In order to perceive how city government decisions and selections are impacting people of different genders, they have to be assessed and examined for their implications to people within and across genders. Right now, the City is in the early phases of evaluating public policy via a racial equality lens. With an interdepartmental work group created following a presentation from the National League of Cities and a pilot program underway, applying the racial equality lens is a vitally essential step towards advancing racial equality in Alexandria. To combat discrimination - intended or in any other case - and to best serve the residents of Alexandria, City budgets, workforce practices, and policy selections have to be examined with a gender lens. A Gender Lens on Transportation & Development Transportation infrastructure is a serious priority for the town government.

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Long-time period migration insurance policies, with a human development perspective, require continuous and consistent coordination and cooperation at all ranges. It is poised to be the main supporter of negotiations to adopt the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, scheduled for 2018. The safety of forcibly displaced people throughout their journey should also be ensured by way of humanitarian aid or organized transportation. Since displacement lasts on average 17 years, their journeys require worldwide coordination and settlement to share the responsibility of care in occasions of emergency and in the longer term. Facilitate assured asylum for forcibly displaced people the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol oblige international locations to welcome asylumseekers on their territories and to not ship them again the place their lives may be in danger. It embraces areas as diverse as migration, humanitarian help (together with meals safety), public well being and labour markets. As a part of a regional response to the Syrian crisis, the International Organization for Migration offered help for four million people in Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, the Syrian Arab Republic and Turkey. It is expected to play a key role from a migration perspective within the lengthy-time period normalization of the crisis, offering services in prescreening, counselling, medical processing, coaching, transport, reception and integration. This is possible if existing registries from major markets are centralized and expanded to include derivatives. For instance, the destination of illicit flows from Africa is concentrated in its major buying and selling partners (Canada, China, Europe, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the United States). Increase technical capability of countries to process info and implement lively insurance policies against tax evasion, tax avoidance and illicit flows To make the globalization of data work in favour of public insurance policies, governments require preparation. Even if details about foreign assets turns into readily available as the result of a data revolution, its effectiveness will depend on enough and systematic analysis. So worldwide cooperation should help the event of technical capability in this area. The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer and subsequent compliance by signatory states led to a pointy decline in atmospheric chlorine, which depletes the ozone layer. Still, things may be changing: A proposed plan to elevate world funding in vitality effectivity and to broaden renewable vitality from the current 0. Technological development has already allowed the decoupling of financial development and carbon dioxide emissions in 21 international locations, together with Germany, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. If international locations have access to these technologies by way of new investments, a decisive funding plan can overcome the dreaded tradeoff between sooner financial development and lower greenhouse gas emissions. An aggressive funding plan is likely to have a constructive effect on job creation, primarily based on estimates in Brazil, China, Germany, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, Spain and the United States. Technological advances and better information of impacts on the surroundings have offered the tools to right ways of dwelling, consuming and producing. This correction will include a cost, together with inevitable job losses in polluting industries. But the 2015 Human Development Report exposed alternative ways to respond to this challenge, such as focused social insurance policies and the event of new professional skills for affected workers. Indeed, effectivity and sustainability depend on figuring out the "right" social costs of the different types of vitality and on tackling failures in credit markets. One promising choice is to broaden access to credit by way of nationwide and multilateral development banks. Its loans and subsidies for funding in vitality-effectivity measures in buildings and industry have leveraged voluminous personal funds. And the lately created New Development Bank, which is expected to emphasize sustainable development and renewable vitality, has explicitly committed to giving precedence to clear vitality tasks. In 2016 it accredited its first package of loans worth $811 million to Brazil, China, India and South Africa. Improve transparency in appointing heads of multilateral organizations the appointment strategy of heads of multilateral organizations should be extra clear. The lack of transparency limits the chance to shape each group for future challenges. In 2016 the United Nations made some progress on this front, with the election of the Secretary-General preceded by public declarations of candidacies and public informal dialogues with member states. This progress should continue with extra sturdy processes in all multilateral organizations. The multilateral system is committed to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. This highly effective agenda might require institutional changes, such as reshaping entities to strengthen coherence, improve accountability and guarantee synergy, or binding mechanisms to make effective the common however differentiated responsibility of countries. The development of deprived groups in many components of the world depends heavily on the consistent work of multilateral organizations (box 5. Ensuring nicely funded multilateralism and cooperation the worldwide group should broaden the resource envelope for world motion, together with world financing for nationwide development and for institutional public items. In addition to the persevering with work of the Commission on the Status of Women (since 1946) and the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, two necessary processes have been underneath means. First, the institutional architecture has been expanded for the reason that 1995 Beijing Platform for Action, which defined strategic aims and actions by governments, regional organizations, multilateral organizations and personal sector and civil society organizations. This view, in turn, has trickled right down to other multilateral, regional, nationwide and local authorities entities, supported by a worldwide community of civil society organizations. A majority of creating areas have achieved gender parity in primary education, and gaps have narrowed in secondary and tertiary education. The World Bank Group is an important multilateral development bank (with around 50 % of multilateral development bank disbursements over 2004­2012). Multilateral and regional development banks played an lively countercyclical role within the monetary crisis of 2008, a task to be strengthened. For instance, the multilateral development banks increased their lending to creating and emerging international locations 72 % between 2008 and 2009, precisely when personal capital markets have been contracting their flows of sources. The Group of 20 agreed in 2009 to help the recapitalization of multilateral development banks. For instance, in 2012 the European Investment Bank doubled its paid-in capital by 10 billion, which increased its lending capability by 80 billion. Given typical cofinancing of no less than 50 % by personal buyers, this opened financing house of 160 billion. The first is a protracted-standing form of worldwide cooperation with its roots within the Nineteen Seventies; the second emerged on the finish of the Nineteen Nineties. In both varieties creating international locations share skills, information and sources to meet their development objectives. Triangular cooperation consists of both a Development Assistance Committee donor or a multilateral establishment, facilitating funding, coaching and administration. As instructed by the Paris Declaration for Aid Effectiveness,eighty two creating international locations should assume ownership of technical cooperation tasks and thoroughly choose areas of cooperation and companion international locations based on their wants. Increase official development help from conventional donors Developed international locations should improve their contributions to official development help, assembly their commitment of 0. Meeting this goal would have added an estimated $191 billion to actual official development help in 2014, a rise of 141 % (figure 5. Meeting this Sustainable Development Goal goal would be essential to obtain other Sustainable Development Goals, in particular within the least developed international locations-unable to mobilize home sources or access personal worldwide capital markets. The new regional development bank-for infrastructure in Asia Regional development banks provide technical and monetary help to creating international locations by way of technical cooperation, grants and low-curiosity loans. Traditionally the regional development banks have included the African Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the Inter-American Development Bank. The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, a major new establishment, emerged in January 2016. Considering the substantive challenge of reaching the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030, the regional development banks complement world cooperation. They can disseminate region-specific information, align their programmes and tasks to region-specific challenges and appear as extra legitimate regional actors than world establishments. The expansion of regional development banking is a major step in development insurance policies, but in addition a administration and governance challenge. Griffith-Jones (2016) underscores clear targets within the context of clear development frameworks; good governance to improve effectivity and promote alignment with nationwide development methods; right incentives for bank workers and for debtors to be sure that loans maximize development impact and guarantee a minimum business return; transparency of operations; and technical help to restrict opposed social and environmental effects in operations. Saudi Arabia, as the most important non­Development Assistance Committee donor in monetary phrases, offered $thirteen.


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Introduction to simulation and experimental techniques utilized in learning laser-tissue interactions. Introduction to design ideas and engineering concepts utilized in design and manufacture of tools for minimally invasive surgical procedure. Topics embrace optical devices, endoscopes and laparoscopes, biopsy devices, laparoscopic tools, cardiovascular and interventional radiology devices, orthopedic instrumentation, and integration of devices with therapy. Requisites: Civil Engineering M20 or Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering M20, Computer Science 31, Mathematics 32B, 33A. Overview of foundational data evaluation and machine-studying strategies in bioengineering, specializing in how these techniques may be applied to interpret experimental observations. Students acquire theoretical and practical knowledge of information evaluation and machine-studying strategies related to bioengineering. Students turn into sufficiently conversant in these techniques to design studies incorporating such analyses, execute evaluation, and work in teams using comparable approaches, and ensure correctness of their results. Engineering materials utilized in medicine and dentistry for repair and/or restoration of damaged pure tissues. Function, utility, and biocompatibility of biomaterials depend critically on their surface and interfacial properties. Discussion of morphology and composition of biomaterials and nanoscales, mesoscales, and macroscales, techniques for characterizing construction and properties of biomaterial interfaces, and strategies for designing and fabricating biomaterials with prescribed construction and properties in vitro and in vivo. Targeted supply of genes and medicines and their controlled launch are necessary in therapy of difficult diseases and related to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Application of engineering ideas (diffusion, transport, kinetics) to problems in drug formulation and supply to establish rationale for design and growth of novel drug supply techniques that can present spatial and temporal control of drug launch. Introduction to biomaterials with specialized structural and interfacial properties. Strong give attention to understanding applied sciences, the way to design activation imaging paradigms, and the way to interpret results. Closely directed, interactive, and actual research expertise in energetic quantitative techniques biology research laboratory. Critiques of oral shows and written progress stories explain the way to proceed with search for research results. Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Re- 40 /Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering search. Development of dynamic techniques modeling methodology for physiological, biomedical, pharmacological, chemical, and related techniques. Estimation methodology and model parameter estimation algorithms for becoming dynamic system models to biomedical data. Theory and algorithms for designing optimal experiments for growing and quantifying models, with particular give attention to optimal sampling schedule design for kinetic models. Research techniques and expertise on particular subjects involving models, modeling strategies, and model/computing in biological and medical sciences. Introduction to mathematical modeling and pc simulation of cardiac electrophysiological course of. Simulation on sequential and parallel supercomputers, choice of numerical algorithms, to optimize accuracy and to present computational stability. Study of selected subjects in bioengineering taught by resident and visiting school members. Seminar on speaking bioengineering and biomedical engineering ideas, concepts, and strategies; instructing assistant preparation, group, and presentation of material, including use of visible aids, grading, advising, and rapport with college students. Preparation for oral qualifying examination, including preliminary research on dissertation. Scope and Objectives the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering conducts undergraduate and graduate programs of instructing and research that target the areas of biomolecular engineering, techniques engineering, and advanced materials processing and span the general themes of power/environment and nanoengineering. Aside from Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering / 41 the basics of chemical engineering (thermodynamics, transport phenomena, kinetics, reactor engineering and separations), explicit emphasis is given to metabolic engineering, protein engineering, synthetic biology, bio-nano-technology, biomaterials, air air pollution, environmental modeling, air pollution prevention, molecular simulation, course of techniques engineering, membrane science, semiconductor processing, chemical vapor deposition, plasma processing, and polymer engineering. Both graduate and undergraduate programs carefully relate instructing and research to necessary industrial problems. Learning Outcomes the Chemical Engineering main has the following studying outcomes: Application of information of arithmetic, physics, chemistry, biology, and chemical and biological engineering, especially to integration of molecularto micro-scale data into macroscale evaluation and design of chemical and biochemical processes and merchandise Design of a chemical or biological system, component, or course of that meets technical and economical design goals with consideration of environmental, social, and moral issues, as well as sustainable growth targets Identification, formulation, and resolution of complicated chemical and biological engineering problems Function as a productive member of a multidisciplinary group Effective oral and written communication Undergraduate Study the Chemical Engineering main is a designated capstone main. The capstone project requires college students to first work individually and learn to combine chemical engineering fundamentals taught in prior required programs; they then work in groups to produce a paper design of a sensible chemical course of using acceptable software tools. Graduates should have the ability to design a chemical or biological system, component, or course of that meets technical and economical design goals, with consideration of environmental, social, and moral issues, as well as sustainable growth targets. In addition, they should have the ability to apply their knowledge of arithmetic, physics, chemistry, biology, and chemical and biological engineering to evaluation and design of chemical and biochemical processes and merchandise; function on multidisciplinary teams; establish, formulate, and clear up complicated chemical and biological engineering problems; and talk successfully, both orally and in writing. The mission of the undergraduate program is to educate future leaders in chemical and biomolecular engineering who successfully mix their broad knowledge of physics, chemistry, biology, and arithmetic with their engineering evaluation and design skills for the creative resolution of problems in chemical and biological technology and for the synthesis of progressive (bio)chemical processes and merchandise. Capstone Major the chemical engineering curricula present a top quality, professionally oriented education in trendy chemical engineering. The biomedical engineering, biomolecular engineering, environmental engineering, and semiconductor manufacturing engineering choices present college students a possibility for exposure to a subfield of chemical and biomolecular engineering. In the Major Required: Chemical Engineering forty five, one hundred, 101A, 101B, 101C, 102A, 102B, 103, 104A, 104B, 106, 107, 109; three technical breadth Chemical and biomolecular engineering assistant professor Dante A. The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering offers Master of Science (M. The Major Required: Chemical Engineering forty five, one hundred, 101A, 101B, 101C, 102A, 102B, 103, 104A, 104B, 106, 107, 109; three technical breadth programs (12 models) selected from an approved listing out there in the Office of Academic and Student Affairs; two capstone evaluation and design programs (Chemical Engineering 108A, 108B); and two elective programs (8 models) from Chemical Engineering 113, C118, C119, C121, C128, C135, C140 (one other chemical engineering elective could also be substituted with approval of the school adviser). Areas of Study the semiconductor manufacturing specialization requires that college students have advanced knowledge, assessed in a comprehensive examination, of processing semiconductor devices on the nanoscale. Two different programs should be taken from common choices in the division, while two Chemical Engineering 598 programs involving work on the thesis can also be selected. The remaining two programs could also be taken from these supplied by the division or any other area in life sciences, physical sciences, arithmetic, or engineering. In case of failure, the examination could also be repeated as soon as inside one time period with the consent of the graduate adviser. A second failure results in a suggestion to the Graduate Division for termination of graduate examine. Students must select the transport phenomena core space and both the thermodynamics core space or response engineering core space or both. If they select only certainly one of thermodynamics or response engineering, they have to also select both the biomolecular engineering or engineering arithmetic core space. These examinations give attention to the dissertation research and are carried out by a doctoral committee consisting of no less than 4 school members nominated by the division in accordance with University regulations. Three members, including the chair, are inside members and must maintain school appointments in the division. Students normally submit their dissertation research proposals to their doctoral committees earlier than the end of Winter quarter of the second yr in educational residence. The University Oral Qualifying Examination consists of an oral defense of the dissertation research proposal and is administered by the doctoral committee. The written research proposal should be submitted to the committee no less than two weeks prior to the oral examination to allow the members adequate time to evaluate the work. Students must full a thesis and should seek the advice of the research adviser for details. Students nominate a three-member thesis committee that must meet University requirements and be approved by the Graduate Division. Semiconductor Manufacturing Specialization Students are required to full 10 programs (44 models) with a minimal 3. A minimal of five 200series programs (20 models) are required, including Chemical Engineering 270 and 270R. In addition, two departmental elective programs and two electrical and pc engineering or materials science and engineering electives should be selected, with a minimal of two on the 200 degree. However, programs taken by college students not enrolled in the specialization may not be applied toward the 10-course requirement for the degree. A program of examine that encompasses the course requirements should be submitted to the research adviser for approval earlier than the end of the primary time period in residence and to the departmental Student Affairs Office for approval by Graduate Division earlier than the end of the second time period in residence. Students are required to take Chemical Engineering 270R (directed research course) in the area, working at an industrial semiconductor fabrication facility. The proposed research should be approved by the graduate adviser for semiconductor manufacturing and the industrial sponsor of the research. The ultimate course may be selected from choices in life sciences, physical sciences, arithmetic, or engineering.

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Survival and coping mechanisms that are not essential might detrimentally have an effect on the way ladies relate to others. Develop health-related prevention and intervention strategies for trafficking primarily based on current fashions of good practice established for different types of violence towards ladies. Models ought to embrace gender- and culture-specific strategies developed for medical care, social service practices, health schooling, public consciousness, and protocols and training for law enforcement response. Increase consciousness of health dangers and consequences of trafficking among authorities, key policymakers, public health officers, health care suppliers, law enforcement businesses, and relevant nongovernmental and international organisations, and donors. Fund and promote health outreach services to vulnerable migrant ladies in sectors identified to 7 Support can come in many varieties, and is commonly depending on the out there resources, customs and culture of each setting. Stage three: recognising long run mental health issues, and serving to ladies to look in the direction of the future! The third stage of care provision is generally when suppliers focus on making ready ladies for an impartial and self-enough future. For ladies dwelling outside their home nation, language, cultural, and social orientation are the first building blocks to their independence. For both ladies remaining in destination nations, and girls returning home, employment is a important bridge between the debilitating memories of previous and a self-enough future. Assisting victims of trafficking can be tense, and emotionally exhausting work. Summary of findings and general recommendations make use of trafficked ladies in destination nations, and make sure that care is offered in applicable languages. Fund the development of sufferer-delicate procedures for use by law enforcement officers to determine, interview, and assist trafficked ladies. Promote the development of a European Union and/or World Health Organization doc to be distributed to migrant and travelling ladies from identified nations of origin (produced in various languages) that includes:! Appropriate fashions of multi-sectoral service provision working with migrant ladies at risk, including a evaluation of outreach practices. Specifically, implement measures to adhere to the rules outlined for "health," including recognition that:! Effective mechanisms for disseminating health-related info to migrant ladies, including a evaluation of currently out there 8 the health dangers and consequences of trafficking in ladies and adolescents. References United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime. Each State Party shall contemplate implementing measures to present for the physical, psychological and social recovery of victims of trafficking in individuals, including, in applicable cases, in cooperation with non-governmental organizations and different relevant organizations and different elements of civil society, and, specifically, the provision of: a) Appropriate housing; b) Counselling and information, specifically as regards their authorized rights, in a language that the victims of trafficking in individuals can understand; c) Medical, psychological and materials help; and; d) Employment, instructional and training opportunities. Terms and Definitions Health: "A state of full physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". Exploitation shall embrace, at minimal, the exploitation of prostitution of others or different types of sexual exploitation, pressured labour or services, slavery or practices much like slavery, servitude or the removing of organs. In this report, perpetrators of trafficking embrace recruiters, brokers, pimps, madames, pimp-boyfriends, employers, or house owners of venues that exploit trafficked ladies. Violence towards ladies: "Any act of gender-primarily based violence that ends in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological hurt or suffering to ladies, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life. It consists of journey between work locations and infrequently entails one or quite a few transit points. United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in individuals, particularly ladies and kids, supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, Article three (a-d), G. The examine is an initial inquiry into an space for which little research has beforehand been performed. Develop applicable frameworks to conceptualise the health dangers and consequences to ladies and adolescents (hereafter referred to as "ladies") of being trafficked. Identify and talk about obstacles and opportunities for health care provision during totally different stages of the trafficking process. Make recommendations for strategies to improve health-related responses to trafficked ladies. Develop a set of ethical and security recommendations for interviewing trafficked ladies. Develop a authorized and human rights analysis of health and trafficking that can be utilized to information the development of rights primarily based standards for use by organisations offering help to trafficked ladies, and by law enforcement and immigration officers coping with cases of trafficking in ladies. Methods A variety of qualitative methods have been used to compile info from a spread of sources. The paucity of current info on this topic made it necessary to draw extensively from totally different key informants (including trafficked ladies and repair suppliers), and from the physique of literature on health, migration, violence, law and human rights. Gender and actionbased research approaches, 1,2 influenced the design and implementation of the examine, including the development of the ethical recommendations, interview strategies, the interpretation of knowledge, and the recommendations. Legal and human rights analysis of trafficking and health, draft Principles Promoting the Health Rights of Trafficked Women. Interviews with a complete of 28 trafficked ladies and adolescents in Italy, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Ukraine, Albania, and Thailand. Literature evaluation A comprehensive evaluation of health and trafficking literature was performed to a) inform the development of the conceptual framework; b) inform the development of the examine instruments; and c) supplement the qualitative data collected in the course of the examine. For this, published and unpublished literature within the following topic areas was reviewed: 1. Relevant international and European instruments, insurance policies, and legislation on related topics, i. Vision, Innovation and Professionalism in Policing Violence Against Women and Children,7 International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects8 and reporting guidelines for media and journalists. This analysis serves as the basis for the draft Principles Promoting the Health Rights of Trafficked Women (see Appendix B). Development, evaluation and testing of examine instruments Five semi-structured qualitative questionnaires have been developed to conduct in-depth interviews with:! Development of conceptual frameworks As health has not been a central theme of traffickingrelated research, three frameworks have been developed to assist conceptualise the health dangers, consequences, and issues in service provision related to trafficking: Framework 1: Framework 2: Framework three: Stages of the trafficking process Spheres of marginalisation and vulnerability Health dangers abuse and consequences Because trafficked ladies are sexually and economically exploited, expertise physical and different types of violence, are a part of a migrant inhabitants, and infrequently work within the sex trade, frameworks have been developed primarily based on current conceptual fashions that examine health within the topic areas of migration, intimate companion violence, sexual abuse, labour exploitation, and sex work. The frameworks, research technique, interview instruments and data analysis draw on each of those perspectives. Development of World Health Organization Ethical and Safety Recommendations for Interviewing Trafficked Women Interviewing a lady who has been trafficked raises a number of ethical questions and security concerns for the sufferer, others near her, and for the interviewer. Having a sound understanding of the dangers, ethical concerns, and the practical realities related to trafficking might help minimise the danger to both the woman and the interviewer. Adopting an ethics-primarily based strategy can also improve the likelihood that a lady will disclose relevant and correct info. These guidelines have been drafted in session with a bunch of experts on trafficking and violence towards 14! The construction of the questionnaire relied closely on framework 1, with questions usually clustered across the stages of the trafficking process: pre-departure; journey and transit; destination; detention, deportation and legal proof; and integration and reintegration. The questionnaire for interviewing trafficked ladies was designed to start with less delicate questions, shifting gradually to tougher issues. Six totally different, but coordinated questionnaires have been developed to interview various key informants and trafficked ladies. The chart below outlines the totally different questionnaires by respondent, and highlights key themes of the interviews. Probing words or questions have been included within the questionnaire to assist interviewers get hold of extra detailed info. Translation of supplies from Ukraine, Thailand, Albania and the Netherlands was carried out by the interviewers who have been all bi-lingual. Translations of Italian interview documentation have been carried out by outside translators conversant in the topic of trafficking or health. Interviews with trafficked ladies and adolescents One of the best challenges associated with the examine was to make sure that the findings mirrored the perspectives of women who had been trafficked. Given the highly delicate nature of the examine topic and the potential risks associated with trying to interview ladies who have been in a trafficking scenario, the examine focused on interviewing ladies who had left the trafficking scenario, who have been ready of relative security, and who had entry to help. A whole of 28 ladies who had been trafficked have been interviewed for this examine: 4 in Albania, 5 in Italy, three within the Netherlands10, 2 in Thailand11, 4 within the United Kingdom and 10 in Ukraine. In Albania, the Netherlands and Ukraine, the help organisation was additionally the examine companion.

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This contains greater than 527,000 Native Hawaiians, 184,000 Samoans, fifty seven,000 Tongans, 5,000 Tahitians, 900 Tokelauans, and 9,000 of other groups. Most Guamanians or Chamorro are of mixed ancestry, descended from the indigenous Chamorro of Guam who intermarried with settlers primarily from Spain, Japan, the Philip pines, and the United States. The Chamorro are more than one-third (37 percent) of the residents of Guam, with Filipinos more than one-fourth (26 percent); Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans collectively greater than 5 percent; and whites greater than 7 percent. The United States maintains formal political associations with peoples from Polynesia and Micronesia however not from Melanesia. In 2010, greater than half (fifty two percent) of the Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone-or-in combination inhabitants lived in just two states, Hawaii (356,000) and California (286,000). Considering people who chosen Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders in addition to one or more other races will increase this inhabitants whole for the state of Hawaii to almost 356,000, or 26 percent of its whole inhabitants. Although the political relationships between the United States and chosen island nations in the Pacific Ocean to the west of Hawaii differ, affiliation with the United States is mirrored in the similarities of the well being care systems that have evolved. The location of these territories relative to Hawaii, Asia, and the mainland United States, how ever, ends in these islands that share Pacific territo ries encountering related challenges with respect to medical and public well being staffing and amenities. In most of the territories, innovative methods have been developed to work round these challenges and meet the well being care wants of the residents. The Naval Regional Medical Center serves lively-obligation personnel, navy depen dents, and veterans, while Guam Memorial Hospital, a government-owned facility, serves the rest of the inhabitants. This well being system has been supported partially by funding under a Compact of Free Association ratified by Palau and the United States in 1993. Continuation of the compact and of associated well being system enhance ments is determined by the passage of legislation to renew the Compact of Free Association between the United States and the Republic of Palau. Although legislation to achieve this was launched in the House of Representatives in 2012 and referred to the related subcommittee, no further motion was taken on it. Five main well being facilities also are available to serve the inhabitants on the island, which numbers greater than 55,500 (2010). This value typically combines with gear, supply, and 15 drug shortages to cut back the standard of care on the island territories. Native Hawaiians Native Hawaiians are people whose ancestors have been natives of the Hawaiian islands prior to preliminary contact with Europeans in 1778. Although the 1778 Native inhabitants of the seven inhabited Hawaiian islands is estimated as 300,000, one century after European contact. Poor housing, inferior sanitation, starvation, malnutrition, alcohol, and tobacco use also contrib uted to the decline. In 2010, Native and part Hawaiians mixed have been a fifth of the inhabitants on Hawaii (21 percent)seventy five and accounted for more than one-fourth (29 percent) of the newborns on the Hawaiian islands in 2009. Most statistics for Native Hawaiians, however, symbolize the 55 percent of the inhabitants residing in Hawaii. In 2010, the median household earnings was $59,755 for Native Hawaiians residing in Hawaii and $fifty eight,415 for Native Hawaiians residing in the United States total. In 2010, greater than three-quarters (76 percent) of Native Hawaiian adults in Hawaii have been obese or obese,82 in contrast with lower than two-thirds (sixty four percent) of all adults in the United States. Hypertension (also referred to as hypertension), a serious threat factor for both coronary coronary heart disease and stroke, can also be an issue for Native Hawaiians. Although a smaller share of Native Hawaiians residing in Hawaii had hypertension (13 percent) than did the overall inhabitants in Hawaii (17 percent), Native Hawaiians ages 55 to sixty four years had the next prevalence fee (forty nine percent) than did the overall inhabitants (35 percent) in Hawaii in 2010. As a end result, the experience of cancer for Native Hawaiian women typically contains both shame and guilt. Native Hawaiian women with out well being insur ance might hesitate to use free screening services because they want to avoid the shame of being negatively evaluated or discriminated towards on the idea of their want free of charge services. Compared with their less Westernized counterparts in Samoa, American Samoan women report greater threat components and extra related ailments. For example, although two of each three (66 percent) Samoan women ages 25 to sixty four years have been obese, four of each five American Samoan women in the same age group have been obese. In addition, American Samoan women ages 25 to sixty four years have been almost twice as probably (forty two percent) as Samoan women the same ages (22 percent) to report diabetes mellitus. Department of Health and Human Services his choice to not establish the health insurance exchanges (formally the American Health Benefit Exchange) which might be part of the act. Thus, American Samoa will use the Medicaid expansions supported by the federal government under this act, however not the well being exchanges, to meet the well being care wants of American Samoans. Cancer is a serious public well being drawback amongst Pacific Islanders, partially due to thermonuclear weapons testing by the United States in the South Pacific. Residents of Kosrae and Pohnpei States in the Federated States of Micronesia have been affected as participants in the cleanup of the South Pacific testing sites, and proof of radioactive strontium has been discovered on the shores of Guam. More than two of each three women age 18 years or older (68 percent) on Guam also reported having had a Pap check to display for cervical cancer. More than half of these are Samoans, and most of the others are from the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the capacity and attain of the programs are limited in these territories. More than 41 percent of adults ages 25 to sixty four years on the Marshall Islands have diabetes, as do 11 percent of Guamanians. These coalitions shared several noteworthy characteristics: community champions, supportive organizational homes for his or her programs, and access to technical help and resources. The descendants of these colonists and of other Spanishspeaking populations who arrived after them consti tute the biggest of the ethnic groups in the United States right now, numbering 50. Those who identified themselves as "Other Hispanics" constituted almost a quarter (24. Although immi gration from Cuba to the United States via normal channels has been limited since 1959, when Fidel Castro got here to energy, since then Cubans have immigrated to the United States in several waves, primarily under particular humanitarian provisions of law. Central and South American Latino immigrants have come to the United States primarily as the result of civil war, poverty, and political oppression. Mexican and Central American immigrants generally have less schooling than both other international-born populations in the United States and the native-born inhabitants. In the 12 months prior to being surveyed in 2010, about seventy five of each 1,000 Latin America­born women ages 15 to 50 years had given start, in contrast with about fifty two of each 1,000 native women ages 15 to 50 years. The South (36 percent) and the West (41 percent) mixed are residence to greater than three-fourths of all Hispanics. In addition, Latinos accounted for 29 percent of the inhabitants in the West, the one region in which Hispanics exceeded the national level of 16 percent. Farmworkers frequently lack both health insurance and common well being care, two components which might be related to an elevated incidence of persistent sickness and dis ease. Mexico border, usually with out primary services such as septic tanks, sewers, and running water. While almost two-fifths (38 percent) of Mexicans and greater than a third of Puerto Ricans (34 percent) are younger than age 18 years, only a fifth (20 percent) of Cubans are in this age 21 group. A related share of Cubans (17 percent) is older than sixty five years, in contrast with 5 percent of Mexicans and eight percent of Puerto Ricans in this age group. One examine discovered that Mexican, Mexican American, Central American, and South American women all had higher odds of getting hypertension than did their male counterparts. The apparent paradox is that, despite lower earnings and academic attainment and very poor access to well being care, Latino well being outcomes are sometimes the same as or better than these of white non-Hispanics. In specific, the following groups have been discovered to have lower death charges than their white non-Hispanic female counterparts: Mexican American and Central and South American women ages 25 to 44 years, Cuban women ages 45 to sixty four years, and Puerto Rican and Mexican American women age sixty five years and older. In addition, the entire following Hispanic subgroups of girls had lower observed mortality threat than their white non-Hispanic counterparts, when examined by nativity status: U. These findings suggest that the Hispanic paradox is probably not a static phenomenon and will instead be evolving as the Hispanic inhabitants in the United States will increase in size and variety. In March 2013, the seasonally adjusted unem ployment fee for the Hispanic inhabitants age 16 years and older (both women and men) of 9. Furthermore, these femaleheaded households are extra probably than other types of households to have incomes beneath the federal poverty level. Although 23 percent of all non-Hispanic white female­headed families had incomes beneath the poverty level in 2011, the corresponding share of Latino female­headed families was 41 percent.

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Results from the 2010 census race and Hispanic origin different questionnaire experiment (PowerPoint). Changing the culture of educational medication to remove the gender management hole: 50/50 by 2020. Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 88(10), 1411­thirteen. Gender variations in management amongst first-12 months medical students in the small-group setting. Leadership attitudes and beliefs of incoming first-12 months college students: A multi-institutional research of gender variations. You can get pleasure from your new experiences much better when you perceive your rights and the way to minimize the possible dangers. Being open and clear will help to ensure the expertise is optimistic for both of you. It has been developed as part of the World Contraception Day initiative which was began so as to improve consciousness and schooling on contraception and reproductive well being. It is just meant to give guidance and introduce you to some widespread information you must learn about contraception. Both of you must take equal accountability, however since most contraceptive strategies are used by girls, the final decision concerning the specific technique must be up to the lady. Below are some tips to assist you to begin a dialog together with your partner concerning the want for contraception. So I think it will be actually good for our relationship if we had a chat about utilizing contraception earlier than we begin having intercourse. Talking about contraception and utilizing it reveals you care about yourself in addition to your partner. If your partner is reluctant to discuss or use contraception, you may must spend a bit more time explaining the advantages of contraception. It could possibly be helpful to counsel that your partner speak with a healthcare skilled to get more info. If your partner continues to be reluctant, you may want to reconsider whether you want to have a sexual relationship with this person. It is necessary to talk to a healthcare skilled to get correct information about the best contraceptive for you. The healthcare skilled will ask you questions about your well being and that of your loved ones, so he or she can ensure they give you the right alternative of contraceptives. Remember that healthcare skilled will give recommendations, but the decision is finally up to you. Contraception protects us and permits us to get pleasure from a really pleasurable and enjoyable part of living-intercourse. In this chapter, you will find an outline of the various kinds of contraceptives obtainable and useful recommendation on choosing a technique. Before making a choice, have a look at the different options and discover out about their advantages and drawbacks. Contraceptive strategies differ of their effectiveness to stop an unintended pregnancy. There are a number of strategies obtainable to you: one (or a combination) of them shall be right for you and your stage of life. The following info will assist you to evaluation the options obtainable to you and spotlight necessary info for you to think about. Today, a wide selection of hormonal strategies is on the market to stop unintended pregnancies. Hormones utilized in contraception are mostly an artificial form of the pure hormone progesterone and estrogen. The mixed capsule is one of the most convenient, safe and environment friendly options used by tons of of tens of millions of girls worldwide when taken as directed. The unwanted side effects of the mixed capsule are properly documented and for the overwhelming majority of girls, the benefits outweigh the disadvantages if they take them as directed. The use of any mixed hormonal contraceptive is related to an elevated danger of blood clots. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of significant cardiovascular unwanted side effects from mixed hormonal contraceptives. You must be properly informed about advantages and drawbacks earlier than starting to use hormonal contraception. It is necessary to talk to your healthcare skilled to discuss which technique of contraception is the best one for you. It prevents ovulation (an egg being launched from the ovary every month) and thickens the mucus at the entrance to the womb, making it troublesome for sperm to get by way of. You should take one capsule per day however take different breaks between cycles, depending on the type of capsule. With some capsule brands you must take hormone-free drugs through the breaks to preserve continuous intake. There are various kinds of mixed drugs with different advantages so that you can choose one especially suitable for you after your consultation together with your healthcare skilled. If that fails, it additionally prevents the fertilized egg from nidation into the lining of the womb. It could trigger irregular bleeding slightly more usually than the mixed capsule, however this sometimes eases off with time. It may also initially induce momentary unwanted side effects corresponding to spots and greasy pores and skin, breast tenderness, bloating, and complications. The hormones are launched continuously, entering the bloodstream by way of the pores and skin. One or two small, gentle, plastic rods containing a progestogen reservoir are inserted underneath the pores and skin of the upper arm. It sometimes accommodates hormones which are just like oral contraceptives, however are a lot larger dosed. An emergency capsule is to be taken as quickly as possible after unprotected intercourse or when you suspect that your chosen technique of contraception has failed. Take it ideally within 12 hours, however no later than 3 to 5 days after unprotected intercourse, depending on the type of capsule. Disadvantages Barrier strategies are a lot much less environment friendly at stopping unintended pregnancy than hormonal or intrauterine strategies. Some folks discover it enjoyable to use condoms, however others discover they intervene with spontaneity and sensation. The closed end of the feminine condom covers the cervix and the open end is positioned at the entrance of the vagina. It must be left in for at least six hours after intercourse (and not more than 24 hours). A cap made from rubber or silicone which is smaller than the diaphragm and only covers the cervix. Before intercourse, it must be inserted into the vagina and must not be left in there for more than 48 hours. Remember there are different forms of lengthy-acting contraception which are as environment friendly, however reversible. Before you resolve on a sterilization, you must contact an independent counselor or talk to your gynecologist. It is necessary you talk first with a healthcare skilled to obtain counseling on the dangers and advantages. Once properly inserted, the inserts keep anchored in the fallopian tubes, initiating the creation of a permanent tissue barrier in opposition to pregnancy. A specifically trained physician places the inserts into every of your fallopian tubes by way of the pure pathways of your vagina and cervix (hysteroscopy). Over the following 3 months, your physique works with the inserts to kind a tissue barrier in opposition to pregnancy. After placement one other form of contraception is required for 3 months or till your physician tells you to stop after after having accomplished a affirmation take a look at, which is a vital part of the process. Uterine or fallopian tube anomalies could make it troublesome to place the inserts and never all girls who endure the process will obtain successful placement of both inserts. Male sterilization, additionally known as a vasectomy, is a surgical process during which the sperm-carrying ducts are cut. There are several fertility consciousness strategies- all of them based mostly on the fact that there are only a few days during every menstrual cycle-the times earlier than and shortly after ovulation-when a woman can get pregnant. The menstrual cycle begins the day a woman begins her period (bleeds) and ends the day earlier than her subsequent period begins.


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